Introduction The cell cycle is the series of events that takes place in a cell leading to its division and duplication (replication). In cells without a nucleus ( prokaryotic cells e.g. bacteria), the cell cycle occurs through a process termed binary fission . In cells with a nucleus (eukaryotes ), the cell cycle can be divided in two brief periods: interphase —during which the cell grows, accumulating nutrients needed for mitosis and duplicating its DNA —and the mitosis phase, just after which the cell splits itself into two distinct cells, called "daughter cells". The cell-division cycle is a vital process by which a single-celled fertilized egg develops into a mature organism, as well as the process by which hair , skin , blood cells , some internal organs are renewed and wounds are healed.
Interphase The cell spends most of its life in the interphase. During this phase the cell grows to its maximum size and performs its normal functions. Prophase The chromatin (a special protein that chromosomes are made of) condenses into chromosomes (human cells have 46 chromosomes – 23 from your father and 23 from your mother). Each chromosome eventually can be seen to consist of two strands or chromatids joined at a central centromere in an X shape. The nuclear membrane disappears. The centriole splits and starts to move to opposite poles. Spindle threads form between the poles.
Metaphase Chromosomes lie on the equator of the cell. Each chromosome is attached to the spindle microfibers by its centromere. The chromosomes appear in a straight line across the middle of the cell.
Anaphase The centromere splits. Each chromosome divides into two sister chromatids. Each chromatid is moved to opposite poles of the cell by the shortening of the spindle fibres.Chromatids (now called daughter chromosomes ) gather at opposite poles of the cell.
Telophase A nuclear membrane forms around each of the daughter chromosomes that have gathered at the poles. The daughter chromosomes uncoil to form diffuse chromatin. The cytoplasm then divides during a process called cytokinesis . Note –cytokinesis is not a stage of mitosis but the process of the cytoplasm splitting into two. There are now two genetically identical daughter cells. They are identical to the parent cell and to each other.